Yellow Fever

The yellow fever virus is transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes and is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa, not in Asia. Since the 17th century, several major epidemics of the disease have been recorded in the Americas, Africa and Europe. In the 19th century, yellow fever was deemed one of the most dangerous infectious diseases.

Yellow fever begins after an incubation period of three to six days. Most cases only cause a mild infection with fever, headache, chills, back pain, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. In these cases, the infection lasts only three to four days. However, in fifteen percent of cases sufferers enter a second, toxic phase of the disease with recurring fever. This phase is accompanied by jaundice due to liver damage, as well as abdominal pain, bleeding in the mouth, the eyes and in the gastrointestinal tract that will cause vomitus containing blood (giving the name black vomit). The toxic phase is fatal in approximately 20% of cases, making the overall fatality rate for the disease 3% (15% * 20%).

Surviving the infection causes life-long immunity and normally there is no permanent organ damage. Due to the increased bleeding tendency (bleeding diathesis), yellow fever belongs to the group of hemorrhagic fevers. The WHO estimates that yellow fever causes 200,000 illnesses and 30,000 deaths every year, with nearly 90% of the infections occurring in Africa. Since the 1980s, the number of cases of yellow fever has been increasing, making it a reemerging disease.

WHO recommends routine vaccinations for people living in endemic areas between the 9th and 12th month after birth. In about 20% of all cases, mild and flu-like symptoms may develop. In rare cases (less than one in 200,000 to 300,000), the vaccination can cause YEL-AVD (yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease), which is fatal in 60% of all cases. But in some vaccination campaigns, a 20 fold higher reaction incidence rate has been reported. Age is an important risk factor. In children, the complication rate is less than one case per 10 million vaccinations. Another possible side effect is an infection of the nervous system that occurs in one in 200,000 to 300,000 of all cases. This causes YEL-AND (yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease), which can lead to meningoencephalitis and in less than 5% of all cases, is fatal.


West Nile

West Nile virus is found in both tropical and temperate regions. It mainly infects birds, but is known to infect humans, horses, dogs, cats, bats, chipmunks, skunks, squirrels, domestic rabbits, crows, robins, crocodiles and alligators. The main route of human infection is through the bite of an infected mosquito.

The West Nile Virus produces one of three different outcomes in humans. The first is an asymptomatic infection (approximately 90% of West Nile Virus infections in humans are without any symptoms); the second is a mild febrile syndrome termed West Nile Fever; the third is a neuroinvasive disease termed West Nile meningitis or encephalitis.

The second infection known as the febrile stage has an incubation period of 2 to 8 days followed by fever, headache, chills, diaphoresis (excessive sweating), weakness, lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), drowsiness, pain in the joints and symptoms like those of influenza or the flu. Occasionally there is a short-lived truncal rash and some people experience gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, or diarrhea. Symptoms are generally resolved within 7 to 10 days, although fatigue can persist for some weeks and lymphadenopathy can last up to two months.

The more dangerous infection, encephalitis, is characterized by similar early symptoms, but also a decreased level of consciousness, sometimes approaching near-coma. Deep tendon reflexes are hyperactive at first, later they are diminished. There are other more complicated extrapyramidal disorders such as akinesia (inability to initiate movement) and akathisia (inability to remain motionless) that can develop. Recovery is marked by a long convalescence with fatigue.

More recent outbreaks have resulted in a deeper study of the disease and additional rare outcomes have been identified. The spinal cord may become infected, marked by anterior myelitis with or without encephalitis. WNV-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome has been identified and other rare effects include: multifocal chorioretinitis (eye infection), hepatitis, myocarditis, nephritis, pancreatitis, and splenomegaly.



The variola virus includes several strains, all of which cause various "pox" diseases with the most famous one being Smallpox. Variola caprina is the virus that causes goatpox, and Variola porcina is the virus that causes swinepox. Variola major and minor are the famously known viruses that caused the highly contagious, epidemic (now considered nearly extinct) of smallpox.

The term "smallpox" was first used in Europe in the 15th century to distinguish variola from the "great pox" (syphilis). The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans per year during the closing years of the 18th century (including five reigning monarchs) and was responsible for a third of all blindness. Of all those infected, 20–60%—and over 80% of infected children—died from the disease. Smallpox was responsible for an estimated 300–500 million deaths during the 20th century. This disease was considered eradicated in 1979, with the last naturally occurring case of smallpox diagnosed on October 26, 1977. Most believe smallpox was cured because of the vaccination, but some of the studies indicate that the disease had begun its steady decline and became practically obsolete before the vaccine was created simply because of the natural adaptation of the human immune system.

There are two clinical forms of smallpox. Smallpox localizes in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin, this results in a characteristic maculopapular rash, and later, raised fluid-filled blisters. V. major produces a more serious disease and has an overall mortality rate of 30–35%. V. minor causes a milder form of disease (also known as alastrim, cottonpox, milkpox, whitepox, and Cuban itch) which kills about 1% of its victims. Long-term complications of V. major infection include: characteristic scars, commonly on the face (which occur in 65–85% of survivors), blindness resulting from corneal ulceration and scarring, and limb deformities due to arthritis and osteomyelitis are seen in about 2–5% of cases. In addition, a form called variola sine eruptions (smallpox without rash) is seen generally in vaccinated persons. This form is marked by a fever that occurs after the usual incubation period.

The incubation period between contraction and the first obvious symptoms of the disease is around 12 days. Once inhaled, variola major virus invades the oropharyngeal (mouth and throat) or the respiratory mucosa, migrates to regional lymph nodes, and begins to multiply. In the initial growth phase the virus seems to move from cell to cell, but around the 12th day, the virus is found in the bloodstream in large numbers. Now a second wave of multiplication occurs in the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. The initial, prodromal, or preeruptive stage symptoms are similar to other viral diseases such as influenza and the common cold: fever of at least 38.5 °C (101 °F), muscle pain, malaise, headache and prostration. Since the digestive tract is commonly involved, nausea and vomiting and backache often occur. The prodrome stage usually lasts 2–4 days. By days 12–15 the first visible lesions—small reddish spots called enanthem—appear on mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue, palate, and throat, and temperature falls to near normal. These lesions rapidly enlarge and rupture, releasing large amounts of virus into the saliva.

Smallpox virus preferentially attacks skin cells, causing the characteristic pimples (called macules) associated with the disease. A rash develops on the skin 24 to 48 hours after lesions on the mucous membranes appear. Typically the macules first appear on the forehead, then rapidly spread to the entire face, proximal portions of extremities, the trunk, and lastly to distal portions of extremities. The process takes no more than 24 to 36 hours, after which no new lesions appear. At this point variola major infection can take several very different courses, resulting in four types of smallpox disease based on the Rao classification: ordinary, modified, malignant (or flat), and hemorrhagic.

So why would we include a remedy for a disease that has been "eradicated"? First of all, smallpox still exists. There are not many natural cases reported, but some who have been vaccinated get a form called modified smallpox. The vaccine, which we believe is more toxic to the human body than is positive for prevention, exposes the person vaccinated to a contaminated form of the smallpox virus and can cause variola sine eruptions. This is an indication that the immune system sees this vaccine as toxic and the detox Remedy would be appropriate. In addition, this remedy serves as a detox for all Variola species, including those that affect swine and goats, diseases that still exist today. Lastly, if great economical loss were to bring any nation or culture through a kind of great depression, where civilization went through a kind of 'dark ages' again, we believe Smallpox could once again become an epidemic.



Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. Rubella is a common childhood infection usually with minimal systemic upset although transient arthropathy (joint condition) may occur in adults who contract the virus. Serious complications are very rare, although infection of a pregnant woman by Rubella virus can be serious. If the mother is infected within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, the child may be born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which entails a range of serious illnesses. Spontaneous abortion occurs in up to 20% of cases. Apart from this scenario, rubella is a relatively trivial infection.

However, Rubella is extremely contagious. Rubella is transmitted via airborne droplet emission from the upper respiratory tract of active cases (can be passed along by the breath of people sick from Rubella). The virus may also be present in the urine, feces and on the skin. There is no carrier state, the reservoir exists entirely in active human cases. The disease has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks. During this incubation period, the patient is contagious typically for about one week before he develops a rash and for about one week after.

After an incubation period of 14–21 days, German measles causes symptoms that are similar to the flu. The primary symptom of rubella virus infection is the appearance of a rash (exanthem) on the face generally a pink or light red color, which spreads to the trunk and limbs and usually fades after three days (it is often referred to as three-day measles). The facial rash usually clears as it spreads to other parts of the body. Other symptoms include low grade fever, swollen glands (sub occipital & posterior cervical lymphadenopathy), joint pains, headache and conjunctivitis (eye infection). The swollen glands or lymph nodes can persist for up to a week and the fever rarely rises above 38 C (100.4 F).

Forchheimer's sign occurs in 20% of cases, and is characterized by small, red papules on the area of the soft palate (see photo).



Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children, accounting for close to 50% of hospitalizations for that. It is one of several viruses that cause infections often called stomach flu, despite having no relation to influenza. Rotavirus A, the most common of the 5 known species, causes more than 90% of infections in humans. Worldwide nearly 500,000 children under five years of age still die from rotavirus infection each year and almost two million more become severely ill. In addition to its impact on human health, rotavirus also infects animals and is a pathogen of livestock.

Rotavirus is usually an easily managed disease of childhood. Rotavirus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, via contact with contaminated hands, surfaces and objects, and possibly by the respiratory route. The feces of an infected person can contain more than 10 trillion infectious particles per gram; fewer than 100 of these are required to transmit infection to another person. It infects and damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis.

Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a mild to severe disease characterized by vomiting, watery diarrhea, and low-grade fever. Once a child is infected by the virus, there is an incubation period of about two days before symptoms appear. Symptoms often start with vomiting followed by four to eight days of profuse diarrhea. Dehydration is more common in rotavirus infection than in most viruses caused by bacterial pathogens, and is the most common cause of death related to rotavirus infection.



Human rhinoviruses are the most common viral infective agents in humans and are the predominant cause of the common cold. There are two modes of transmission: aerosols of respiratory droplets and contaminated surfaces, including direct person-to-person contact.

Human rhinoviruses occur worldwide. Symptoms include sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing and cough. They may also be accompanied by muscle aches, fatigue, malaise, headache, muscle weakness, or loss of appetite. Fever and extreme exhaustion are more common in influenza. In the United States, the incidence of colds is higher in the autumn and winter, with most infections occurring from September to April. Many children may have six to twelve colds a year! The seasonality may be due to the start of the school year and to people spending more time indoors (thus in proximity with each other) which increases the chance of transmission of the virus.

The primary route of entry for Human rhinoviruses is the upper respiratory tract. Then the virus binds to ICAM-1 receptors on respiratory epithelial cells. As the virus replicates and spreads, infected cells release distress signals known as chemokines and cytokines (which in turn activate inflammatory mediators).

Infection occurs rapidly, with the virus adhering to surface receptors within 15 minutes of entering the respiratory tract. Just over 50% of individuals will experience symptoms within 2 days of infection. Only about 5% of cases will have an incubation period of less than 20 hours and 5% of cases can have an incubation period of greater than four and a half days.


Respiratory Syncytial

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a virus that causes respiratory tract infections. It is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections and results in many hospital visits during infancy and childhood.

In temperate climates there is an annual epidemic during the winter months. In tropical climates, infection is most common during the rainy season. In the United States, 60% of infants are infected during their first RSV season, and nearly all children will have been infected with the virus by 2–3 years of age. Among those infected with RSV, 2–3% will develop bronchiolitis and need professional care.

Natural infection with RSV induces protective immunity which wanes over time—possibly more so than other respiratory viral infections—so people can be infected multiple times. Sometimes an infant can become symptomatically infected more than once, even within a single RSV season. Severe RSV infections have increasingly been found among the elderly.

For most people, RSV produces only mild symptoms, often indistinguishable from common colds and minor illnesses. The Centers for Disease Control consider RSV to be the "most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia in children under 1 year of age in the United States". Other RSV symptoms common among infants include listlessness, poor or diminished appetite, and a possible fever.

Recurrent wheezing and asthma are more common among individuals who suffered severe RSV infection during their first few months of life. If RSV infection sets up a process that leads to recurrent wheezing or whether those already predisposed to asthma are more likely to become severely ill with RSV has yet to be determined.

For some children, RSV can cause bronchiolitis leading to severe respiratory illness that requires hospitalization and in rare cases, can cause death. This is more likely to occur in patients that are immunocompromised or infants born prematurely.



Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). It is zoonotic (i.e., transmitted by beasts), most commonly by a bite from an infected subject. Roughly, ninety-seven percent of human rabies cases come from dog bites.

The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system.

The time between infection and the first flu-like symptoms is normally two to twelve weeks, but can take as long as two years. Once they appear, the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis, cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, paranoia, terror, hallucinations, progressing to delirium. Producing large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow is typical during the later stages of the disease. This can result in hydrophobia, where the patient has difficulty swallowing because the throat and jaw become slowly paralyzed, show panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench their thirst.

Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is effectively untreatable and usually fatal within days. Death almost invariably results two to ten days after first symptoms. Remember that symptoms do not begin for 2-12 weeks after being exposed (bitten) to an infected animal. However, it is only prudent for us to tell you that Rabies can be a deadly disease. Please make a wise decision and if you feel you need medical attention, we encourage you to seek it.


Parvovirus B19

The B19 virus, generally referred to as parvovirus B19 or sometimes erythrovirus B19, causes a childhood rash called fifth disease or erythema infectiosum, which is commonly called "slapped cheek syndrome". You can see why by the photo. The virus is primarily spread by infected respiratory droplets, but blood-borne transmission has been reported.

Fifth disease or erythema infectiosum is only one of several expressions of Parvovirus B19. Any age may be affected, although it is most common in children aged six to ten years. It is named due to being the fifth pink-red infectious rash to be described by physicians.

Infected patients with normal immune systems are contagious before becoming symptomatic, but usually not after. Once infected, patients usually develop the illness after an incubation period of four to fourteen days. The disease commences with fever and malaise while the virus is most abundant in the bloodstream, and patients are usually no longer infectious once the characteristic rash of this disease has appeared. Teenagers or young adults may develop the so called 'Papular Purpuric Gloves and Socks Syndrome'.

Fifth disease is also known for "lace-like" rashes on the arms, legs, torso, and back. These rashes can last for up to 5 weeks and are worse after sun exposure, exercise, or hot baths.

In adults (and perhaps some children), parvovirus B19 can lead to seronegative arthritis. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience arthritis after parvovirus infection. Possibly up to 15% of all new cases of arthritis are due to parvovirus. A history of recent contact with a patient and positive serology generally confirms the diagnosis. This arthritis does not progress to other forms of arthritis. Typically joint symptoms last 1–3 weeks, but in 10-20% of those infected, it may last weeks to months.

Although most patients have an arrest of erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells) during parvovirus infection, it is most dangerous in patients who have sickle cell anemia or hereditary spherocytosis, and are therefore heavily dependent on erythropoeisis due to the reduced lifespan of the red cells. This is termed "aplastic crisis" (also called reticulocytopenia) and is generally treated with a blood transfusion.



HPIVs (human parainfluenza viruses) are spread person to person by direct contact with infected secretions through respiratory droplets or contaminated surfaces or objects. Infection can occur when infectious material contacts mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, or nose, and possibly through the inhalation of droplets generated by a sneeze or cough. HPIVs can remain infectious in airborne droplets for over an hour. HPIVs are ubiquitous and infect most people during childhood. The highest rates of serious HPIV illnesses occur among young children. Serologic surveys have shown that 90-100% of children aged 5 years and older have antibodies to HPIV-3, and about 75% have antibodies to HPIV-1 and -2.

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are common causes of respiratory tract disease in infants and young children. Each of the four HPIVs have different clinical and epidemiologic features. The most distinctive clinical feature of HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 is croup (i.e., laryngotracheobronchitis or swelling around the vocal chords and other parts of the upper and middle airway). HPIV-1 is the leading cause of croup in children, whereas HPIV-2 is less frequently detected.

HPIV-3 is more often associated with bronchiolitis (swelling of the small airways leading to the lungs) and pneumonia. HPIV-4 is rarely detected and is less likely to cause severe disease; but it may be more common than once thought.

HPIVs can cause repeated infections throughout life. Re-infections are usually manifested by an upper respiratory tract illness (e.g., a cold, sore throat). HPIVs can also cause serious lower respiratory tract disease with repeat infection (e.g., pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis), especially among older adults and patients with compromised immune systems. The incubation period (time from exposure to the virus to onset of symptoms) for HPIVs generally ranges from 2 to 7 days.