Trichosporon species are widely distributed in nature. Species have been isolated from a wide range of substrates including: human hair (shown in photo), soil, cabbages, cheese, scarab beetles, parrot droppings, and sea water. Trichosporon is also a commensal (normally found) in the human gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Recognized as the cause of superficial infections such as white piedra (a distal infection of the hair shaft), the genus is now the second most commonly reported cause of disseminated yeast infections in humans.

Trichosporon species are increasingly recognized as a cause of systemic illness in immunocompromised patients. Hematologic malignancies are the best-described risk factors for trichosporonosis, accounting for 63% of reported cases. Additional risk factors include: corticosteroid use, hemochromatosis, deficiencies of granulocyte function, and end-stage renal disease.

These risk factors may work in conjunction; for example, chemotherapy used to treat hematologic malignancies can cause neutropenia and mucosal disruption. Trichosporon peritonitis is described in association with peritoneal dialysis catheters. This is likely related to the combination of disrupted barrier immunity and immune dysfunction due to end-stage renal disease.



There are twenty two species under the genus Trichophyton. Within the total number of species, eleven are commonly associated with tinea (ringworm) of the scalp, the nails, and the skin in humans while only four are isolated from animals. Trichophyton is a dermatophyte fungus which is primarily isolated from the soil, humans, or animals.

Trichophyton is a keratinophilic filamentous fungus which has the ability to invade keratinized tissues. It is considered one of the leading causes of hair, skin, and nail infections in humans. Possession of several enzymes, such as acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases are the major virulence factors of Trichophyton species.

Ringworm is common, especially among children, but it can affect people of all ages. It is caused by a fungus, not a worm like the name suggests. Ringworm occurs when a type of fungus called tinea grows and multiplies on your skin.

Ringworm can affect the skin on your:

  • Beard -- tinea barbae
  • Body -- tinea corporis
  • Feet -- tinea pedis (also called athlete's foot)
  • Groin area -- tinea cruris (also called jock itch)
  • Scalp -- tinea capitis

Ringworm can spread easily from one person to another. You can contract ringworm if you touch someone who has the infection or if you come into contact with items contaminated by the fungus, such as combs, unwashed clothing, and shower or pool surfaces. You can also contract ringworm from pets that carry the fungus. Cats are common carriers.

Symptoms of ringworm are itchy, red, raised, and scaly patches that may blister and ooze. The patches tend to have sharply-defined edges. Red patches are often more red around the outside with normal skin tone in the center, making it look like a ring.

If ringworm affects your hair, you will have bald patches. If ringworm affects your nails, they will become discolored, thick, and even crumble.



Stachybotrys is a cellulose-degrading fungus (mold) commonly found in soil and on materials rich in cellulose such as hay, straw, cereal grains, plant debris, wood pulp, paper, and cotton. Although it mainly survives as a saprophyte (i.e., by feeding on dead material), it has also been found to cause lesions on the roots of soybean plants. Presence of this mold in a building is an indication of an existing or previous water problem.

The Stachybotrys mold produces a powerful mycotoxin and just touching it can give you a rash. Despite the far-reaching public health measures that have emerged as a result of recent publications, the health risks from environmental exposure to Stachybotrys remain poorly defined.

Symptoms may include headache, sore throat, diarrhea, fatigue, dermatitis, and depression. Chronic fatigue, dermatologic, constitutional, and lower respiratory tract problems have also been reported in some cases.

NOTE: If you suspect you have been exposed to this fungus, it is probable that you have been exposed to some Mycotoxins produced by this fungus and you will need to add that (Mycotoxin) remedy to your cart as well.



Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by the soil fungus Sporothrix. It is often referred to as "rose handler's disease". Infection with the dimorphic soil fungus is usually acquired through skin penetration due to injury. A person can be otherwise healthy, but if this fungus enters the wound, it can cause severe infection.

The most common extracutaneous infection sites are in the bones, joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. Hematogenous dissemination (originated from the blood), particularly in immunocompromised hosts, results in widely disseminated cutaneous and visceral infection, including meningitis.

A rare form of sporotrichosis appears to result from inhalation of the organism. This form is characterized by a chronic cavitary pneumonia that is clinically and radiographically indistinguishable from tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. This form of sporotrichosis is most common in individuals with severe underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Sporotrichal infection of the larynx and paranasal sinuses has also been described.



Rhodotorula is a common environmental inhabitant. It can be cultured from soil, water, and air samples. It is able to scavenge nitrogenous compounds from its environment remarkably well, growing even in air which has been carefully cleaned of any fixed nitrogen contaminants.

Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic pathogen, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Many cases of fungemia associated with catheters, endocarditis, peritonitis, meningitis, and endophthalmitis are infections incited by this yeast. The great majority of these infections were catheter-related and diagnosed in patients with cancer.



Fungi in the Rhizopus genus are often responsible for zygomycosis, an infection caused by colonization with fungi in the Zygomycetes class. These fungi also have some practical functions, and they can appear in the form of plant pathogens in some regions of the world. This makes them a rather diverse group.

The fungus needs a warm, moist environment to thrive. People can prevent or stave off Rhizopus infection by keeping food refrigerated or in the freezer so that the spores never get a chance to grow. In the case of crops, it can be difficult to prevent the spread of the fungus once spores start to land. The spores often burrow into the surface of the substrate, making the mold difficult to remove, since it cannot simply be brushed off.

People can become infected with Rhizopus by eating contaminated food or inhaling the spores. In rare cases, people can also be infected as a result of puncture wounds. Once the spores get into the body, they mature and start to grow spreading hyphae through the vascular system. They cause a range of health problems such as fever, cough, breathing difficulties, face and eye pain, bulging eyes, skin infection, gastrointestinal infection and peritonitis.

Zygomycosis usually appears near the area where the fungus was introduced to the body, but it can spread to regions like the brain. Antifungal medications can be used to treat the infection, although it may become problematic in someone with a compromised immune system.

These fungi also have some uses. Several species are used in the controlled fermentation of foods, especially in Asia.



Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) or pneumocystosis is a form of pneumonia, caused by the yeast-like fungus found in the respiratory tracts of many mammals and humans.

Studies suggest that Pneumocystis organisms are communicable; airborne transmission has been reported. Pneumocystis organisms are commonly found in the lungs of healthy individuals. Most children are believed to have been exposed to the organism by age 3 or 4 years, and its occurrence is worldwide. It does not cause disease unless the immune system ceases to function properly.

PCP is the most common opportunistic infection and major cause of death in patients with AIDS in the United States. In persons without HIV infection, PCP also carries a severe prognosis; mortality rates of 30-50% have been documented in several large studies. The prognosis of PCP is worse in patients with the following: pulmonary disease, those who develop pneumothorax, and in patients who require mechanical ventilation. The higher mortality rate is likely a result of delayed diagnosis and delayed initiation of appropriate treatment.



Piedra, which means "stone" in Spanish, is an asymptomatic superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft. Piedra is classified into 2 types, black piedra and white piedra. The source of infection in black piedra appears to be Piedra Hortae, found in the soil and has also has been traced to organisms in stagnant water and crops. The source of infection for white piedra is Trichosporon and that remedy should be used.

Black piedra is most common in tropical regions such as South America, Far East, and the Pacific Islands. White piedra is more common in temperate and semitropical climates, such as those in Asia, Europe, Japan, and parts of the southern United States.

Both types of piedra ultimately may lead to hair and scalp infection causing the hair to break because the shaft is weakened by cuticular penetration.

This remedy addresses the Piedraia hortae, please see the Trichosporon section for the cause of white piedra.



Penicillium species are very common molds. About 200 species have been described. Spores of Penicillium are found everywhere in the air and soil. Penicillium species are some of the most common causes of spoilage of fruits and vegetables. For example, Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum are common causes of rotting citrus fruits, while Penicillium expansum is known to spoil apples. Most Penicillium species are active producers of toxins.

Penicillium chrysogenum is the most common Penicillium species in indoor environment. It is widespread and has a wide range of habitats. In indoor environment, it is extremely common on damp building materials, walls and wallpaper, floor, carpet mattress and upholstered furniture dust. It produces multiple toxins of moderate toxicity. It is allergenic and can infect immuno-compromised patients.

Penicillium may cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma, and allergic alveolitis in susceptible individuals. This fungi has been isolated from patients with keratitis, ear infections, pneumonia, endocarditis, peritonitis, and urinary tract infections. Penicillium infections are most commonly exhibited in immunosuppressed individuals. For example, P. marneffei is a fungus abundant in Southeast Asia that typically infects patients with AIDS in this area. Infection with P.marneffei is acquired via inhalation, initially resulting in a pulmonary infection and then spreading to other areas of the body (lymphatic system, liver, spleen, and bones). It is often fatal.

An indication of infection is the appearance of papules that resemble acne on the face, trunk, and extremities (see photo).

NOTE: If you suspect you have been exposed to this fungus, it is probable that you have been exposed to some Mycotoxins produced by this fungus and you will need to add that (Mycotoxin) remedy to your cart as well.



Paecilomyces is a fungal genus which can be found widely distributed around the world in dirt, food, and dead plant material. Many environments, including homes, naturally have some Paecilomyces species. Superficially, Paecilomyces fungi can resemble Penicillium molds, but these two genera are quite different.

These fungi form filament-like structures, spreading to create a colony of powdery mold which can have a texture similar to that of suede or velvet in some species. The colony usually starts out creamy in color, and can develop red, yellow, brown, pink, and violet hues, among others. Unlike the physically similar Penicillium, Paecilomyces does not develop greenish colonies. Some species can develop a sweet smell, especially in the case of mature colonies.

This fungus does not generally cause deleterious health effects, except in people with compromised immune systems. When infections do occur, they are occasionally referred to as paecilomycosis. Corneal ulcer, keratitis, and endophthalmitis due to Paecilomyces may develop following extended wear contact lens use or ocular surgery. Paecilomyces is among the emerging causative agents of opportunistic mycoses in immunocompromised hosts. Direct cutaneous inoculation may lead to these infections and may involve almost any organ or system of the human body: soft tissue, pulmonary, and cutaneous infections, cellulitis onychomycosis, sinusitis, otitis media, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis and catheter-related fungemia. Paecilomyces species can also cause allergic disorders, such as allergic alveolitis.

NOTE: If you suspect you have been exposed to this fungus, it is probable that you have been exposed to some Mycotoxins produced by this fungus and you will need to add that (Mycotoxin) remedy to your cart as well.