The genus Acremonium currently contains about 100 species, of which most are isolated from dead plant material and soil.

Many species of Acremonium are recognized as opportunistic pathogens of man and animals, causing mycetoma (fungal growths endemic in Africa and India) and onychomycosis (nail fungus, or ringworm of the nail -- although most nail fungus is caused by Trichophyton). Clinical manifestations of hyalohyphomycosis (other mold related infections) caused by Acremonium include: arthritis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, endocarditis, pneumonia, cerebritis and subcutaneous infection.

A class of β-lactam antibiotics were originally derived from Acremonium.